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新植物 | 番茄红素:人类一生的健康伴侣

番茄红素对生命早期的影响

据研究,天然番茄红素对初发先兆子痫的高危孕妇有益,还可帮助预防与妊娠相关的高血压、肾损害和其他并发症疾病。研究结果表明(251名妇女,4毫克每天),番茄红素可降低初产妇先兆子痫、胎儿宫内生长迟缓的发展。[1]

1.女性子痫前期发展在番茄红素组大大减少了(8.6% vs 17.7%);
2.安慰剂组平均舒张压显著高于番茄红素组(92.2±5.98mmHg vs 86.7±3.80mmHg);
3.番茄红素组平均胎儿体重明显高于安慰剂组(2751.17±315.78g vs 2657
±444.30g);
4.番茄红素组胎儿宫内生长迟缓的发生显著降低(12% vs 23.7%)

番茄红素与婴儿认知功能

分析结果显示,母亲每天多摄入1mg番茄红素,婴儿认知功能评分上升0.14分。

每天多摄入1mg番茄红素,婴儿1岁时适应能力评分提高0.2点。

天然番茄红素有助于降低运动性哮喘和氧化应激

研究表明,每日30mg剂量的番茄红素,对运动性哮喘EIA患者有保护作用,最有可能是通过体内抗氧化作用。所有患者显示他们的用力呼气量,运 动后显著减少(FEV1)15% 。接受每日剂量为30毫克的番茄红素1周后,55%患者受到了明显的抗EIA保护作用。

15个未受过训练的健康受试者中进行 了20分钟的体育锻炼 80%最大脉冲使 用测力计的自行车。抽取血液样本,在运动前和运动后一小时。这个过程被重复后5 周,每天摄入150 毫升番茄汁。结果表明,每日摄入番茄汁,等于15 毫克番茄红素,5周显著降低体育运动后血清中8-oxodG。

番茄汁对马拉松运动员氧化应激标志物和血管内皮动力学的影响

在探讨超级马拉松运动员补充效果为两个月内有一个特殊的乳清蛋白棒在特定比例含有碳水化合物和蛋白质(1:1)(N = 16),并加番茄汁补充(n = 15)。硫代巴比妥酸反应物质和蛋白质羰基在补充组明显减少,而明显增加的蛋白棒组观察还原型谷胱甘肽。两组的总抗氧化活性保持不变。流动介导的扩张,作为内皮功能的估计,两组都有增加,只有在番茄汁给药组观察到显著上升。总之,用特殊的蛋白棒和番茄汁补充两个月的超级马拉松运动员可以显著改善受试者的氧化状态,而番茄汁也能改善这些运动员的血管内皮功能。

番茄红素与皮肤健康

番茄红素能够阻碍活性氧(ROS)的影响。它积累和代谢于皮肤,提供了抵抗UV破坏第一道防线。研究多氢番茄红素,番茄红素的组合已经显示,这些类胡萝卜素显示出在更广泛的范围内的辐射保护作用,包括UVA和UV-B波长。在一个模拟的太阳辐射研究中,这种特殊的组合被认为是更有效地降低氧化应激和光损伤。

番茄红素与男性生殖能力

研究评估了口服番茄红素治疗男性特发性不育。特发性非梗阻性少、弱、畸形精子,三十人参加的试验。所有患者均给予2毫克番茄红素,每天两次,三个月。三个月后 进行精液分析,测定精子浓度、精子活力和精子形态。所有患者均完成试验无任何并发症。结果,二十例(66%)精子浓度改善,十六(53%)改善运动能力,十四(46%) 精子形态改善。在改善的情况下,浓度的中位数变化为2200万ml,运动25%和形态10%。浓度和运动功能的改善有统计学意义。基线精子浓度低于500万/ml时无显著改善。较高的基线浓度与显著改善有关。26例患者中有六例妊娠(23%)。口服番茄红素治疗似乎对特发性男性不育的治疗作用。最大的改进是在精子的发生(66%例)无严重少精子症患者(精子密度大于500万/毫升)可给予治疗。人体试验的分析表明,每日补充4-8毫克的番茄红素,为期3-12个月,精子参数和怀孕率得到改善。

番茄红素与心血管健康

膳食中的番茄红素以番茄汁、意大利面酱和番茄油树脂的形式提供给健康的受试者,同1周的标准化早餐一起,随机顺序。结果显示,膳食补充番茄红素显著增加血清番茄红素水平至少两倍。虽然血清总胆固醇水平没有变化,但是血清脂质过氧化和氧化低密度脂蛋白均明显下降。这些发现结果表明番茄红素可能降低冠心病的风险。

番茄红素与骨质疏松

在一项研究中发现,番茄红素补充具有降低绝经后氧化应激指标以及骨吸收标记的Ⅰ型胶原(NTX,导致骨质疏松症)。在另一项研究中,在30天的番茄红素饮食限制的绝经后妇女中,出现血浆 NTX增加20%。

在细胞水平的检测和研究中发现,天然番茄红素可抑制破骨细胞的骨吸收的形成和刺激成骨细胞的活性。此外,它提高了骨细胞中雌激素活性而抑制乳腺癌细胞的活性。

番茄红素与前列腺

虽然临床数据还缺乏,但是番茄红素可能在诊断良性前列腺增生(BPH)患者的发展成为前列腺癌(PCA)的风险增加方面起到关键作用。

研究番茄红素在老年男性前列腺增生症患者中的作用。总的病理证实 BPH无PCA患者40例随机接受番茄红素的剂量为15毫克/天或安慰剂治疗 6个月的干预效果。前列腺增生的临床诊断标志物和疾病的症状进行评估。研究发现血清前列腺特异(PSA)水平降低,而在安慰剂组没有变化。

番茄红素组血浆番茄红素含量升高,而血浆其他类胡萝卜素含量不受影响。在直肠超声检查和直肠指诊中,安慰剂组的前列腺扩张发生,在番茄红素组前列腺没有扩大。通过国际前列腺症状评分问卷评估表明,男性服用番茄红素补充剂可显著改善良性前列腺增生症。

饮食摄取番茄红素与患前列腺癌的风险呈负相关。我们研究了补充番茄红素对前列腺癌患者的影响。二十六名新诊断为临床局限性前列腺癌的男性在前列腺癌根治术前3周内随机接受15毫克番茄红素 Lyc-O- Mato(N 15)每日两次或无补充(N 11)。用免疫印迹法检测前列腺良恶性部分细胞分化和凋亡的生物标志物。前列腺切除标本完全嵌入,分期切片,并评估病理分期,格里森评分,癌症的体积和前列腺上皮内瘤 变的程度。血浆中番茄红素、胰岛素样生长因子-1(IGF-1)、胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白-3,和前列腺特异性抗原,在基线和3周后的补充或观察测量。

干预组11例(73%),对照组2例(18%)未及手术和/或前列腺外组织癌。番茄红素组12例(84%),对照组5例(45%)的受试者肿瘤大小<4ml。干预组10例(67%)前列腺内弥漫性上皮内瘤变,而对照组 11例(100%)。干预组血浆前列腺特异抗原PSA水平下降 18%,而他们的对照组增加了的14%。番茄红素组癌组织中缝隙连接蛋白43的表达上升为0.63+/-0.19,对照组为0.25+/-0.08。天然番茄红素可降低前列腺癌的生长。

天然番茄红素不仅是一种植物营养素,它还是我们一生的伙伴。在过去二十多年的研究和发展中,这个令人难以置信的类胡萝卜素,当人们认为更了解它时,它却再一次使我们感到惊讶,每一次显示出更多的潜力和可能。我们永远不知道下一步会发现什 么,但我们很高兴一起踏上这场不可思议的健康发现旅程。

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